Monthly Archives: July 2017

Design Pattern – Prototype Pattern – Part VI

If you want to read about previous posts related to design patterns, series of posts about design patterns are

  1. Introduction to design patterns
  2. Singleton Pattern
  3. Factory Pattern
  4. Abstract Factory Pattern
  5. Builder Pattern

The next post about Prototype design pattern will cover creation design pattern that we have been writing about till now.

When to use Prototype Design Pattern?

Since this is a creational design pattern, this is used when decision is to reduce creation cost of object through standard way. There can be argument about how this is then different from abstract factory pattern. The key benefit of Prototype design pattern is that it optimizes the use case where multiple objects of same type will have mostly same data.

Major example is reading configuration data from a file/database over a network. Also if you want to hide the logic of creating new instance from the client.

How to use Prototype Design Pattern?

In this pattern, there is an interface of Prototype that has method for clone and any concrete class implementing this interface, implements the method to clone the object.

public interface Car {

Car clone();


We have an interface Car which we will implement in our concrete classes.

package com.bettterjavacode.designpatterns.prototypeexample;

public class Toyota implements Car {

private final String CARNAME = "Toyota";

public Car clone() {
return new Toyota();

public String toString() {
return CARNAME;


We will have a factory class that will get us a prototype based on type of object we have passed. This will look like below:

package com.bettterjavacode.designpatterns.prototypeexample;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

public class CarFactory {

private static final Map<String, Car> prototypes = new HashMap<String, Car>();

static {
prototypes.put("toyota", new Toyota());
prototypes.put("lexus", new Lexus());
prototypes.put("bmw", new BMW());

public static Car getPrototype(String type) {
return prototypes.get(type)

Now our demo class will pass the type of car as an argument to print the carname. That will look like below:

package com.betterjavacode.designpatterns;

import com.bettterjavacode.designpatterns.prototypeexample.Car;
import com.bettterjavacode.designpatterns.prototypeexample.CarFactory;

public class PrototypeDemo {

public static void main(String[] args) {
if (args.length > 0) {
for (String type : args) {
Car prototype = CarFactory.getPrototype(type);
if (prototype != null) {
} else {
System.out.println(" Run again with arguments");




In this post, we showed how to use prototype design pattern. The code for this is available here


  1. Design Patterns – Prototype
  2. Prototype Pattern

Design Patterns – Builder Pattern – Part V

Continuing the series of posts about design patterns, we will talk about builder pattern in this post. Builder pattern is of type creational design pattern. One of the major uses of Builder pattern is when there are too many constructor parameters to handle.

When to use Builder Pattern?

Builder pattern enforces a step by step approach to create a complex object. The object can not be used till it’s a finished product. It helps to encapsulate complex creation logic. One of the examples from real time is file creation with a format. If you are create a file about certain format (example xml, csv), you can builder pattern to create simple logical approach to creating file.

How to use Builder Pattern?

Lately working on a project to build an EDI file to transfer between customer, I have to create a file of format 834. So 834 file format varies according to different health insurance carrier. This file format contains headers, records and trailers. Headers indicate different paradigm about the file and the customer and who is sending it. To show example of builder pattern, I will use one of the headers of this file format and how it can be created using builder pattern.

One of the headers is called Transactional Group Header. This header looks like below in a real file


First field “ST” indicates that it is a transactional group. All the records for one customer can lie between ST and SE. 834 is a transaction code for file format. Since this is 834 file format, code is 834. 5432853 is a unique transaction control number, this can be anything between 4 digits in length to maximum 9 digits in length. 005010X220A1 is a implementation reference number.

Our implementation of the class with have fields for each of these field from header, a private constructor and a static builder class. This is shown below:

public class TransactionalHeader implements Serializable {
private static final long serialVersionUID = 7517644545656169045L;

private String st;

private String transactioncode;

private String transactioncontrolnumber;

private String implementationreference;

public static class Builder {

private String st;

private String transactioncode;

private String transactioncontrolnumber;

private String implementationreference;

public Builder st(String st) { = st; return this;


public Builder transactioncode(String transactioncode) {

this.transactioncode = transactioncode; return this;


public Builder transactioncontrolnumber(String transactioncontrolnumber) {                            this.transactioncontrolnumber = transactioncontrolnumber; return this;


public Builder implementationreference(String implementationreference) {                                this.implementationreference = implementationreference; return this;


public TransactionalHeader build() {

return new TransactionalHeader(this);



private TransactionalHeader(Builder builder) { =;

this.transactioncode = builder.transactioncode;

this.transactioncontrolnumber = builder.transactioncontrolnumber;

this.implementationreference = builder.implementationreference;


public String toString() {

String result = "";

StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();









result = sb.toString();

return result;



This was our builder class. Let’s create a demo class that will use this builder class to build an object that will give us transactional header in file. This will look like below:

public String getTransactionalHeader() {

String result = "";

TransactionalHeader th = new TransactionalHeader.Builder()





result = th.toString();

return result;


In this way, builder design pattern can be used to construct complex objects. One of the easy way to identify when to use this design pattern is when you have more than 4 or more parameters in your constructor.

Code for this post is available to download here.


How To: AngularJS User Interface to CRUD Spring Boot REST API

In this post, we will add an user interface using AngularJS to the REST api we created here.

Controller for home page

First we will create a controller in Spring Boot rest api to call our home page. All the requests that will come to web server, will go through this controller and controller will return a home page for the request based on path. will look like below:

package com.betterjavacode.benefits.controller;

import org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager;
import org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;

public class MainController {

public static final Logger LOGGER = LogManager.getLogger(MainController.class);

@RequestMapping(value = "/home", method = RequestMethod.GET)
public String homepage() {" Enter >> homepage() ");
return "index";

Any request coming to https://localhost:8443/home will return a page from index.html.

Create a Home Page

Now, we will create an index.html page. We will also be using angular JS framework as part of this home page so that we can build a single page application. If you are not aware of Angular JS or new to this framework, you can read about it AngularJS. One thing to remember while creating this page is a directory structure. Lot of issues that arise to create html pages are because of directory structure. Directory structure will look like below:


The home page index.html page is under main/resources/templates/ directory and it looks like below

<html ng-app="benefitApp">

<head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" /><title>Benefit Application</title>

<script>document.write('<base href="' + document.location + '" />');</script>

	<link rel="stylesheet" href="/css/bootstrap.css" />

<script src=""></script>

<script src=""></script>

<script src=""></script>

<script type="text/javascript" src="./js/app.js"></script>


<body ng-controller="MainCtrl">

Hello {{name}}!
<ul class="menu">
	<li><a href="listUser">user-list</a></li>
	<li><a href="listCompany">company-list</a></li>
<div ng-view="ng-view"></div>

Home page shows that this is an angular app with name “benefitApp”. This also declares a controller “MainCtrl” with an angular view. Important to see we are importing angular.js, angular-route.js and angular-resource.js modules. Click on user-list or company-list, will show list of users and list of companies respectively.

Create a controller

Now to handle the controller (MainCtrl), we added in index.html, we will add app.js which will declare the controller. This javascript file also contains config data to handle all the routing of pages. That’s why we will be importing “ngRoute” and “ngResource” angular modules.

var app = angular.module('benefitApp', ['ngRoute','ngResource']);

var app = angular.module('benefitApp', ['ngRoute','ngResource']);
app.controller('MainCtrl', function($scope, $routeParams) {

$ = 'World';

$scope.$routeParams = $routeParams;


Through out the interaction on web pages, we will be using different controllers for editing user or company information and creating user or company. The same file app.js will also handle routing of these pages which is shown below

app.config(function($routeProvider,$locationProvider) {



{templateUrl: 'views/listUser.html', controller: 'userController'});


{templateUrl: 'views/listCompany.html', controller: 'companyController'});

$routeProvider .when('/editUser/:userId',

{ templateUrl : 'views/editUser.html' }) ;

$routeProvider .when('/editCompany/:companyId',

{ templateUrl : 'views/editCompany.html' }) ;






Rest of the code showing all controllers’ logic has been skipped for post purposes. It is available on github repository.

UserController or CompanyController are calling rest apis which we have built using Spring boot.


Now build the code and run our embedded tomcat webserver. Fire up the url https://localhost:8443/home – it will look like below:


Click on user-list and it will show list of users inside the same page as below:


Click on edit button and we will see a form to update user information:


Download –

In this post, we showed how to create a simple CRUD user interface using angular JS for Spring Boot REST api. The code for this is available at repository